Report: Chinese fishing fleet is responsible for systemic human rights abuses and illegal fishing across the Southwest Indian Ocean.

The Chinese fishing fleet is responsible for systemic illegal fishing and human rights abuses in countries bordering the Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO), undercutting China’s claims of supporting sustainable development and thriving blue economies in the region, according to a new report published today by the Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF). All of the fishers interviewed by EJF who had worked on China’s tuna fleet in the SWIO reportedly experienced or witnessed some form of human rights abuses and/or illegal fishing.

China’s distant-water fleet (DWF) is by far the largest in the world, with a growing reputation of perpetrating egregious human rights abuses and illegal fishing. EJF has conducted extensive analysis of China’s DWF over years, revealing incontrovertible illegality and abuse.

EJF has been tracking the Chinese fleet since 2020, and has conducted multiple investigations into its illegal and unethical activities, including conducting 318 interviews with former crew who worked on at least one Chinese vessel, 96 of which were in the last 6 months. However, the extent of criminal abuses in the SWIO stands in particularly stark distinction to China’s professed interests in the region, it says. This new investigation exposes four deaths which occurred on Chinese vessels between 2017 and 2023, including one suspected suicide of a crew member said to have thrown himself overboard.

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From the article:

The report is based on interviews with crew working on Chinese vessels in the SWIO and a wide range of secondary data sources, and is the first of its kind to examine China’s DWF in the region. Between 2017 and 2023, Chinese vessels were linked to 86 unique cases of illegal fishing or human rights abuses in the SWIO. Of the 95 tuna longliners currently believed to be authorised to target tuna in the SWIO, almost half are linked to cases of illegal fishing and/or human rights abuses.

Of the 44 fishers interviewed, 80% reported shark finning, 100% reported abusive working and living conditions, 96% excessive overtime and 55% physical violence. EJF also interviewed 16 fishers who worked on Chinese trawlers in Mozambique who similarly reported widespread illegalities, with 81% reporting physical abuse and half reporting the deliberate capture and/or injury of vulnerable marine megafauna.

Seafood linked to these vessels is potentially entering key international markets, including Europe, the US, Japan and South Korea; around 73% of the vessels suspected of human rights abuses and illegal fishing appear on the list of authorised exporters to the EU at time of writing.

Through the Belt and Road Initiative, China has invested heavily in the countries bordering the SWIO, including building a range of ports and fisheries infrastructure. The terms of these investments are often opaque and, despite positive articles about Chinese investment in local media, concerns have been raised by civil society groups and local communities regarding the impacts on coastal communities...

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